Monday, 20 November 2017

Analytical Reflection for formal presentation

At the beginning of Effective Communication, I set the goal of organizing my thoughts properly to be more succinct in the way I write and speak. I enjoyed the oral presentation as it was a great experience to test out and practice my presentation skills. The main criticism I received regarding my presentation was my fidgeting, talking speed, and delivery. 

During the presentation, fidgeting was a form of a coping mechanism to mask my nervousness. I initially thought that it was not much of an issue, but it distracted the audience from my verbal speech. Additionally, for the majority of my presentation, I was not facing my audience fully, alienating the other half of my audience. 

Aside from fidgeting, I was feeling zealous to present. As a result, I was unaware of how fast I spoke. I also failed to foresee the abrupt change of pace when I handed over to my teammates to speak. 

For subsequent presentations, I will be more conscious of my non-verbal cues, facing my body towards the audience and remember not to fidget too much. For future group presentations, I will have to be conscious of my speed for a smoother transition between me and my teammates.

To conclude, this presentation is my favourite assignment and I enjoyed the experience very much. I learnt that everyone experiences pre-presentation jitters and it is how one manages the stress and nervousness that makes the difference. I established my flaws and strengths, practiced my presentation skills while discovering new flaws I never knew I had to further improve my communication skills. 

Sunday, 19 November 2017

Technical Report - Draft 3

Letter of Transmittal
Singapore Institute of Technology
10 Dover Drive
Singapore 138683
16 November 2017
Ms Christy Lee Inn Siew
Singapore Institute of Technology
10 Dover Drive
Singapore 138683

Dear Christy,
RE: Proposal for a Sustainable Entry System
We are team CRAZ, a group of 3 undergraduates from Sustainable Infrastructure, Singapore Institute of Technology. This technical report is to address the problems experienced whilst entering SIT @Dover through the entry system alongside Ayer Rajah Expressway (AYE) during peak hours.
This report consists of the issues people face while using the entry system, which includes the bottlenecking of human traffic during peak hours and the system being wheelchair unfriendly. The scope contains the advantages and countermeasures towards the potential drawbacks of a dual turnstile system and side gate as our solution and why it should be implemented.
We thank you for taking time out of your busy schedule to review this technical report.

Sincerely,
CRAZ


Personal Statement
Tan Chun Heng is an undergraduate from Sustainable Infrastructure (Land), Singapore Institute of Technology (SIT). Chun Heng graduated from Nanyang Polytechnic with a diploma in Electronic, Computer and Communication Engineering. He interned at STELOP and dealt with thermal imaging products such as surveillance for defence purposes and understands the importance of an efficient security system.







Ong Zi Rui is an undergraduate from Sustainable Infrastructure (Building Services), Singapore Institute of Technology (SIT). Zi Rui graduated from Temasek Polytechnic with a diploma in Integrated Facilities Management. He interned at Singapore Changi Airport doing ground related work and believes that efficiency is of utmost importance in any work space environment.

Reginald Goh Hsiao Shane is an undergraduate from Sustainable Infrastructure (Building Services), Singapore Institute of Technology (SIT). Reginald graduated from Ngee Ann Polytechnic with a diploma in Electrical Engineering (Solar specialization). He interned at Singapore Technology Engineering (STE) and maintained and serviced security features in Marina Bay Financial Centre which comprises of security cameras, electromagnetic door locks and card readers. Thus, he recognizes the importance of a stable and maintained security system. 
 

 

  
     Table of Contents
     Page#
        Executive summary…………………………………………………………………………………………i
                                                                                                                                      _______
1.0   Background……………………………………………………………………………………………...……1
_______________________________________________________________________________________
2.0   Problem Statement………………………………………………………………………………………...2
______________________________________________________________________________________
3.0   Purpose Statement…………………………………………………………………………………………2
______________________________________________________________________________________
4.0   Proposed Solution….………………………………………………………………………………………3
             4.1 Ease traffic congestion and improve efficiency……………………………………….3
             4.2 Sustainable Sources……………………………………………………………………………....3
             4.3 Card reader access for side gate……………………………………………………………..3
_____________________________________________________________________________________
5.0   Alternative Solution……………………………………………………………………………………….4
             ______________________________________________________________________________________
6.0   Benefits…………………………………………………………………………………………………………4
             6.1 Eases traffic congestions and improves efficiency…………………………………..4
             6.2 Sustainability………………………………………………………………………………………..4
             6.3 Students with bulky items and wheelchair users…………………………………….5
_____________________________________________________________________________________
7.0   Evaluation……………………………………………………………………………….…………………….6
             7.1 Student/Staff misusing the side gate……………………………………………………...6
             7.2 Students unable to exit after operating hours…………………………………….......6
             7.3 Mechanism Failure………………………….……………………………………………….……6
_____________________________________________________________________________________
8.0   Methods/Procedure……………………………………………………………………………………….7
             8.1 Survey…………………………………………………………………………………………………..7
             8.2 Email…………………………………………………..…………………………………………….….7
             8.3 Online Research…………………………………………………………………………………..7
             8.4 Designs on proposed solutions………………………………………………………….....7
______________________________________________________________________________________
9.0   Concluding Statement…….……………………………………………………………………………..8
_____________________________________________________________________________________
10.0 References………….……………………………………………………………………….……………….9
     
        Appendices:
        Appendix A
        Appendix B
        Appendix C
        Appendix D
        Appendix E
        Appendix F
        Appendix G
            
   







Executive summary

The entry system in SIT@ Dover alongside AYE bottlenecks human traffic during peak hours. Human traffic approaches in waves as people alight from their buses and enter the school compound. Concurrently, there might be people exiting the compound using the same entry system, consequently causing the exiting party to wait awkwardly for their turn. Furthermore, the turnstile is not wheelchair friendly, and people carrying bulky items are unable to access the single turnstile. Additionally, the turnstile locks after 11pm and is closed on Sundays and public holidays, which inconveniences students and teachers. The current entry system is inefficient and frustrates users daily.

Based on a simple survey assessing the level of frustration students feel, about 78% of people feel frustrated over the inefficiency of the single turnstile and a substantial 90% of people would like a change in the single turnstile (see Appendix C).

The solution will be a dual turning turnstile with an exit button inside the campus beside the turnstile. Additionally, a side gate with a card reader will be installed - dedicated toward wheelchair users and people carrying bulky objects.












1. Background

Currently in SIT@ Dover, the entry system alongside AYE periodically holds up human traffic which frustrates students and staff alike who are waiting for their turn to enter the compound. While entering the school during peak hours, people at the other side of the turnstile wait awkwardly for their turn to enter/ exit the school compound.

The entrance system is also not wheelchair friendly, and carrying bulky objects into the school compound through the single turnstile proves to be a real hassle.

Locking the turnstile utilizes very little electricity and tapping into the power grid is unnecessary.

It is also common for students and staff to stay in school till late at night, during exam and non-exam periods alike. The turnstile is locked on Sundays and Public holidays too. During non-exam periods, the turnstile locks at 11pm, which inconveniences students and staff who take buses alongside the entry system alongside AYE.

Based on a simple survey of 59 students at SIT (see Appendix C), a majority of students feel frustrated while using the single turnstile, and if given the option would like a change in the current entry system.

While this might be a relatively petty problem at first glance, improving the entry system will have a positive impact towards the overall mood and psychology of the user. This leaves a good impression of the school, allowing the user to start and end his/ her day on a more positive note. Ultimately, students and staff should be able to enter and exit the campus efficiently and freely.









2. Problem statement
The single-revolving turnstile at the entrance alongside AYE to SIT @Dover should be convenient to users and allow them to enter the campus without queueing up. In addition, people carrying bulky objects and wheelchair users are unable to enter the single turnstile. This creates inconvenience and limits human traffic flow to a one-way bottleneck.
Implementing the appropriate facilities and a new dual-turnstile design will improve user accessibility and alleviate the unnecessary waiting time.

3. Purpose statement
This proposal’s objective is to propose to the Estates Division of SIT @Dover to upgrade the entry system alongside AYE to a sustainable one. The improved entry system will ease human traffic flow during peak hours, be self-sustainable and wheelchair user friendly.


4. Proposed solution for a “Sustainable Entry System”
The proposed solution consists of a self-sustaining dual-turnstile and a side gate with a card reader (see Appendix E). This will ease traffic flow and improve accessibility for wheelchair users and people carrying bulky objects.

4.1 Ease traffic congestion and improve efficiency
A dual turnstile will ease the traffic congestion which allows students and staff to exit and enter the school compound simultaneously. This saves manpower while maintaining security and reduces the overall frustration felt by current users. An exit button will be implemented at the side of the turnstile for students and staff who wish to leave the school compound after 11pm.  

The use of alternative energy will minimize energy consumption. As the user uses the turnstile, gears in the mechanism will trigger a shaft rotation. Mechanical energy will then be converted into electrical energy by the generator and stored into a supercapacitor which makes the dual-turnstile self-sustainable.             

4.3 Card reader access for side gate
The side gate is designed primarily for wheelchair users and for those with bulky items (e.g. Personal Motorised Device (PMD), bicycles, school projects etc.) A card reader is installed beside the side gate, allowing entry for students and staff during Sundays and Public holidays. A signage indicating the purpose of the side gate prompts students and staff from misusing it. Additionally, the already installed closed-circuit television (CCTV) camera serves as an additional deterrence toward students and staff from misusing the side gate. 



5. Alternative Solution for “Sustainable Entry System”
The alternative solution will be hiring a security guard to safeguard the gate along AYE. It will be a much safer and secure alternative as there is physical presence, instead of depending on technology which can potentially malfunction. However, it is unnecessary to hire a security guard as human traffic alongside AYE is periodical and the dual turnstile will do the same job, saving manpower.

6. Benefits of a Sustainable Entry System”
The improved entry system will improve efficiency, save manpower, be independent from the power grid and be wheelchair friendly. 

6.1 Eases traffic congestions and improves efficiency
The improved dual turnstile will ease human traffic congestion and improve the efficiency and reliability of the entry system. It will not only maintain security, but also dismiss the need for patrol along the campus. The improved turnstile will help reduce the user’s frustration towards the current single turnstile, which is a one-way entry system. This also speeds up the entry process, ridding frustration.[oz1]     

6.2 Sustainability
The dual turnstile will decrease energy consumption through the implementation of a kinetic powered generator installed in the turnstile. The stored power in the supercapacitor eliminates the need of tapping into the power grid to lock the turnstile after operating hours, which makes it almost entirely independent from the power grid. The turnstile will only tap into the power grid if the supercapacitor or mechanism malfunctions.    




6.3 Students with bulky items and wheelchair users
The side gate is designed for people with bulky items and wheelchair users. Card readers are installed outside the gate, allowing access for staff and students without the need to call for assistance. This implementation eases the inefficiency and complexity of the situation. During Sundays and Public holidays, students and staff can enter through the side gate. Most importantly, this eliminates waiting time and improves the user’s convenience.
The side gate also provides a positive image for the campus as it shows that the SIT committee cares and shows commitment to keep the campus safe while ensuring welfare towards students and staffs.















Evaluation was done to ensure that the respondents’ and stakeholders’ concerns were identified to provide viable solutions to minimize challenges through a simple survey (see Appendix C). It is essential to design an effective system based on the general response of the survey.            

7.1 Student/Staff misusing the side gate
A signage will be displayed to deter users from intentionally using it without a legitimate reason. Based on the article, “Police launch electronic alert signs to deter crime” (Tan, 2016), stated that signages are a good form of deterrence. Since a Closed-Circuit Television (CCTV) camera is already installed, it can also serve as additional deterrence.       
7.2 Exiting after turnstile’s operating hours
Students in SIT often stay in school after 11pm. Students can only exit through the main gate after the turnstile’s operating hours which inconveniences those wanting to exit through the back gate. According to a survey (see Appendix C), 90% of the respondents would like to be able to exit alongside AYE after campus operating hours. To address this concern, an exit button will be installed allowing students to unlock the door and exit.  The placement of the button will be far away from the reach of outsiders to prevent unauthorised entry. 

7.3 Mechanism Failure
If a mechanism failure were to happen, the dual turnstile will tap in to the power gird to lock and unlock the turnstile.            




8. Methods/Procedure
Research was carried out through an online survey and online news articles to support the sustainable entry system. Our research focuses on the simultaneous entry and exit of human traffic and a self-sustaining locking entry system. Research is done through data collection, data analysis and research of the turnstile’s mechanism.   

8.1 Survey
Survey questions were targeted toward SIT students on the efficiency of the turnstile. According to the data, (see Appendix C) 80% of respondents felt frustrated while using the turnstile. 80% of respondents felt that the system is inefficient and if given the choice, 93% of the respondents would like a change in the current entry system.     

8.2 Email
The exchange of emails with the Estate’s Department was to enquire on the turnstile’s operating hours (see Appendix F).       

8.3 Online Research
Research was done online to explore various types of turnstiles available in the market. Methods to harvest energy through kinetic energy and gear designs for maximum output was also considered (see Appendix D). In the article, “World First Energy-Generated Revolving Door,’’ (Chapa,2008) reported that the first energy generated turnstile was implemented in Netherland and it generates around 4,600kwh of energy per year, which proves that a self-sustainable turnstile is feasible.  

8.4 Designs on proposed solutions
To provide a clear explanation of our proposed solutions. Design ideas were discussed and drawn (see Appendix E).

9. Concluding statement
Team CRAZ strongly believes that the development of the sustainable entry system will effectively ease students’ and staffs’ frustration toward the current entry system alongside AYE at SIT@ Dover. The first step in starting the day right is quite literally your first step into the campus. By improving the efficiency and reliability of the entry system, it boosts the users’ mood. Students and Staff alike that work/ study till late at night will be able to do it peacefully without the burdensome thought of detouring. As undergraduates of Sustainable Infrastructure, it is only natural for us to take sustainability into consideration and design it to be self-sustainable.
To conclude, the survey response expressed a consensus towards a change in the current single-turnstile system (see Appendix C), motivating us to design an improved version of the current entry system. The sustainable entry system will benefit everyone - staff, students, the public and SIT.
















10. References

ALVARADO. (n. d.) Securing Entry with Turnstiles. Retrieved from Alvarado: http://www.alvaradomfg.com/articles/benefits-of-turnstile-secured-entry-points/

Anthony. S (2013, July 11) Kinetic energy harvesting: Everyday human activity could power the internet of things. Retrieved from Extreme Tech: https://www.extremetech.com/extreme/161079-kinetic-energy-harvesting-everyday-human-activity-could-power-the-internet-of-things 

Chapa. J (2008, October 12). The World’s First Energy-Generating Revolving Door. Retrieved from inhabitat: https://inhabitat.com/energy-generating-revolving-door-by-boon-edam/

Guerra. (2016, August 16). Can Supercapacitors Surpass Batteries for Energy Storage? Retrieved from Electronic Design: http://www.electronicdesign.com/power/can-supercapacitors-surpass-batteries-energy-storage

Harbourne (2017, March 07). 6 Main Benefits of Turnstiles at the Entrance. Retrieved from Campus Rec: http://campusrecmag.com/6-main-benefits-of-turnstiles-at-the-entrance/
Silva Consultants (n. d.) Problems of Tailgating. Retrieved from Silva Consultants: http://www.silvaconsultants.com/the-problem-of-tailgating.html
Yeo (2016, December 10) Police launch electronic alert signs to deter crime. Retrieved from The Straits Times: http://www.straitstimes.com/singapore/courts-crime/police-launch-electronic-alert-signs-to-deter-crime



                             



Appendix A       

Personnel, Agencies or Organizations involved
·       SIT building management department
·       SIT Finance department
Shortlisted Supplier
·       Frontier Security Pte Ltd (Supplier)
Frontier Security Pte Ltd has worked on countless projects and their staff has more than five years of experience within the field of work. Collaborated with big companies such as Public Utilities Board (PUB) and SAFRA.
·       APM GLOBAL (Supplier)
APM Global is a local manufacturer established since 2013. With constant investment in research and development, the company strive to achieve reliable and high-quality product.
·       Huntaway Security (Supplier)
Huntaway Security provides wide range of products and maintenance contract solutions. They also provide a two-year on-site warranty for most of their services. Huntaway Security have collaborated with big companies like AIA, SAFRA, NTU and Certis Cicso.













Appendix B

Survey Questionnaire
1.      During peak hours, when a crowd is accessing the turnstile from one side while you are at the other side waiting, do you feel frustrated?

o   Very frustrated
o   Frustrated
o   Slightly frustrated
o   Neutral

2.      During peak hours, is waiting for your turn to pass through the turnstile frustrating?

o   Very frustrated
o   Frustrated
o   Slightly frustrated
o   Neutral

3.      How would you rate the efficiency of the turnstile?

o   Very frustrated
o   Frustrated
o   Slightly frustrated
o   Neutral

4.      Given the option, would you like a change in the back-entrance system alongside AYE at SIT@Dover?

o   Yes
o   No Given the option, would you like to have exit only option alongside AYE at SIT@Dover after school operating hours? Given the option, would you like to have exit only option alongside AYE at SIT@Dover after school operating hours?

5.      Given the option, would you like to have exit only option alongside AYE at SIT@Dover after school operating hours?

o   Yes
o   No




Appendix C
Survey questionnaire results







Appendix D
Information consisting methods of harvesting kinetic energy.

Methods to harvest kinetic energy
In the article “Kinetic energy harvesting: Everyday human activity could power the internet if thing,” (Anthony,2013) stated that human actions generate a small volume of kinetic energy within a span from 1 microwatt to 3,000 microwatts. From the article, we can conclude that energy can be harvested through repetitive motions. (Chapa, 2008) reported that the world’s first renewable energy revolving door can generate 4,600kwh of energy per year.

From our research, a supercapacitor will be required to store energy.
Advantages:
·       Life span of 10-20 years
·       Delivers high currents and density
Disadvantages:
·       Unable to provide current to product with voltage higher than 2.7V

To harvest more energy, we implemented the rotation of gear to maximise the output. Gear ratio affects the output based on the input. The number of teeth and diameter of gears affects the rotation.  To increase the output, we increase the size of the driver gear and decrease the driven gear. Since the turnstile is bi-direction, we can include an idler gear in the middle. (See Figure 1)
 



Figure 1



The supercapacitor will be installed on the idler gear, generating electricity when the gear starts to turn. Together with the main source, the supercapacitor will also be connected to the lock.




Appendix E











Appendix F















Appendix G
Gantt chart and task allocation
Name
Admin Number
Roles
Reginald Goh Hsiao Shane
1700168
Email co-ordinator, Compiler, Letter of transmittal to Purpose statement
Ong Zi Rui
1700110
Research, formatting, Benefits to Appendix
Tan Chun Heng
1700207
Design of sustainable entry system, time keeper, Proposed solution

Gantt Chart
 
















*Dates are in MM/DD/YY


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